Understanding phytocannabinoids can be a tricky proposition. This article covers the basics of Anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and cannabinoids. The key to understanding these molecules is to understand what they do for our bodies. This way, we can take better care of ourselves and our environment.
Anandamide is a cannabinoid found in sativa and is the primary ligand for the CB1 receptors, which are the target of the psychoactive ingredient D9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Studies have shown that anandamide modulates brain reward circuitry and has potential to play a role in the addiction-producing actions of other drugs. Furthermore, anandamide appears to be potentiated by pharmacological inhibition of its metabolism.
In mammals, anandamide acts as a neurotransmitter by triggering presynaptic CB1 receptors and inhibiting neuronal release of various neurotransmitters. It affects areas of the brain such as the hippocampus, substantia nigra, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. It also inhibits pain sensitivity by activating TRPV1 channels and retrograde 2-AG signaling.
Anandamide is derived from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means "bliss" or "joy". The brain and nerve cells respond to anandamide via its interactions with CB receptors. It has been found to act as a signal messenger for CB receptors and is essential for regulating mood and behavior. The discovery of anandamide was made possible by the groundbreaking research of Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, one of the pioneers of cannabinoids.
Besides THC, anandamide is also an important endocannabinoid. This lipid mediator has been found in the pig brain. It mimics the psychoactive effects of the compound mostly from high-THC breeds like purple gelato seeds from in humans, and other endogenous agonists of CB receptors have been found in human tissues. Anandamide is one of these endocannabinoids with significant implications for the health of humans. It is thought to regulate cell growth and differentiation, and may also exert its pathophysiological effects.
Several endocannabinoids are involved in the regulation of female reproductive events. Exogenous cannabinoids such as cannabinoids and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are a possible candidate to disrupt these mechanisms and promote infertility through dysregulation of ovarian function. Current research shows that the female reproductive tract is host to ligands, receptors, and metabolic enzymes for synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids. This complex picture presents a complicated clinical picture. Increasing numbers of municipalities have legalized the plants for recreational use, making it easier for women to get pregnant.
The endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (DAG) is the most important endogenous ligand for CB1 receptors in the brain. It is synthesized by the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase in response to increases in intracellular calcium. The endocannabinoid system is believed to be important in the reward system, as diverse drugs increase brain eCB levels. However, little is known about the reinforcing effects of 2-AG.
Understanding the role of 2-AG is important in endocannabinoid formation. 2-AG also plays a role in the production of proinflammatory metabolites. Its synthesis is inhibited by genetically modified mice. Both of these receptors are essential for the regulation of different organ systems. Despite their beneficial effects, there are still concerns regarding exposure.
Two-arachidonoyl cannabinoids (THC and 2-AG) are endogenous cannabinoids that modulate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This type of cannabinoid is produced by the body's own metabolism and possesses cannabinoid neuromodulatory properties. It is also found in bovine milk and is synthesized by the enzyme phospholipase C from glycerol.
High concentrations of AEA were found in infected L3 worms. These parasites contained 1,000 pmol of AEA per gram of worm, which was 200 to three-times higher than levels found in human upper intestinal mucosa and circulatory blood. These results suggest that endocannabinoids are critical players in the host-helminth interaction.